American Silent Film Comedies: An Illustrated Encyclopedia

Blair Miller

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Here’s another fun fact: The title sequence makes you feel like you can punch through walls! Strangelove ), so even just having likable Russian characters was enough to make this film subversive to some. Sci-Fi An oppressed Mexican peasant village hires seven gunfighters to help defend their homes. Tom Huddleston Is that a carving knife in your pocket or are you just pleased to see me? Green Day rocker stars in awkward mid-life dramedy.
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100 American Independent Films (Screen Guides)

Jason Wood

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Meanwhile, Texas Chainsaw Massacre helmer Hooper keeps the schlock coming; as evinced by Martin Casella’s psychic researcher clawing his own face to shreds, and some slightly bathetic final revelations about a defiled burial ground. The film stars Clint Eastwood, as William Munny, a retired gunslinger who returns for one last job. TCM's Dark Crimes collection features Robert Siodmak's Phantom Lady (1944), George Marshall's The Blue Dahlia (1946), and Stuart Heisler's The Glass Key (1942).
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Science Fiction and Fantasy Film Flashbacks: Conversations

Tom Weaver

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While in Russia, working on a film directed by her sister's boyfriend, Andy, Billy finds herself trapped in the studio one night and is horrified to see a snuff film being made. They receive help from various sources, including supernatural ones. That therapy and its effects are some of the most conspicuous sci-fi elements here (along with the futuristic sets and costumes) – Alex’s eyes are held open while he watches repellent imagery; later, when inspired to be physically or sexually violent, he starts to wretch.
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Cutting Edge: Art-Horror and the Horrific Avant-garde

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Yet for all its crude excesses – a foetus is ripped from its mother’s womb, a tortoise is skinned alive, genitals are sliced off – ‘Cannibal Holocaust’ does achieve an undeniable visceral intensity. It suggests a theme that had not really been explored much in cinema by 1945, and remains as sparse today: a man falls from grace when he betrays his betrothed, and their bond is the only thing that can redeem his wickedness. For example, one can ask, how do the lyrics of the song “It’s Harry I’m Planning to Marry!” advance the plot of Calamity Jane?
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The British Working Class in Postwar Film

Philip Gillett

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No matter how hard you try, there are films and horror subgenres that will slide through the cracks.. Synopsis: Eight BYU alumni stand-up comedians perform their clean comedy live at the Rose Wagner Performing Arts Center in Salt Lake City. Responding to the screen: Reception and reaction processes. Tom Huddleston The Big Idea: The crew themselves, a grouchy gang of blue-collar workers in crumpled old jumpsuits bickering about their bonuses.
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John Wayne's the Alamo: The Making of the Epic Film

Donald Clark

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Special Effects by Warren Newcombe and Irving G. Lovecraft (1923/1973), wrote that horror stories project an �atmosphere of breathlessness and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces. .. of that most terrible conception of the human brain�a malign and particular suspension or defeat of those fixed laws of Nature which are our only safeguard against the assaults of chaos and the demons of unplumbed space� (p. 15).� The modern master of horror, Stephen King (1981), conceives of �terror as the finest emotion, and so I will try to terrorize the reader� (p. 37). ����������� The definition of horror utilized in this paper consists of three parts.� First, horror films are fictional rather than non-fictional, even though they may be inspired by actual events.� Edward Gein�a Wisconsin farmer notorious for murder, grave robbery, and necrophilia in the 1950s�served as the model for portions of three classic horror movies: Psycho (1960), Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974), and Silence of the Lambs (1991).� Yet each movie was clearly fictional in nature.� The second component of the present definition of horror recognizes the wisdom of Stephen King�s statement that eliciting terror in the viewer is the ultimate goal of the horror writer and film-maker.� Finally, as Lovecraft observed, horror tales challenge or suspend the natural laws by which we live.� If not supernatural, the forces set loose in horror films imply gross abnormality, thus keeping movies like Psycho (1960) and Jaws (1975) within the horror genre.� Hence, the definition of cinematic horror employed in this paper asserts that horror is a fictionalized account designed to evoke terror through the implied presence of supernatural or grossly abnormal forces.��� ����������� A number of psychosocial models, most with roots in the psychological subfields of personality and social psychology, have been tendered in an effort to explain the enigmatic hold horror pictures seem to have on an audience.� Eight of these theories are briefly described in this section. ����������� Both Freud and Jung offered explanations for the popularity of horror fiction.� To Freud (1919/1955) horror was a manifestation of the �uncanny,� reoccurring thoughts and feelings that have been repressed by the ego but which seem vaguely familiar to the individual.� Jung (1934/1968), on the other hand, argued that horror gained its popularity from the fact that it touched on important archetypes or primordial images that he said resided in the collective unconscious.� Jungians contend that Analytic concepts like the shadow, mother, and anima/animus archetypes can be found in many works of horror fiction (Iaccino, 1994).� The problem with psychoanalytic explanations of horror film appeal is the problem with psychoanalytic explanations of most behavior; a serious lack of precision that makes these theories difficult, if not impossible, to test empirically. ����������� The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that dramatic portrayals gave the audience an opportunity to purge itself of certain negative emotions, a process he called, catharsis.� Feshbach (1976), in extending this approach to media presentations of violence and graphic horror, argued that dramatic or violent cinematic exhibitions encouraged the purgation of pent-up emotion and aggression and in so doing reduced the probability that a person would act on these emotions.� Contrary to the catharsis hypothesis, research has shown that exposure to violent media increases rather than decreases subsequent acts of aggression (Bushman & Geen, 1990) and that anger can be reduced by experiences incompatible with anger, like those triggered by exposure to humor or erotica (Ramirez, Bryant, & Zillmann, 1982).� Be this as it may, an inverse or negative relationship appears to exist between fear and interest in horror movies (Mundorf, Weaver, & Zillmann, 1989), although there is no way to tell from a correlation whether watching horror films reduces fear, lower levels of fear increase interest in horror movies, or some third variable explains the inverse relationship between these two variables. ����������� Excitation Transfer is a variation on the catharsis view.� Zillmann (1978) has argued that frightening movie stimuli physiologically arouse the viewer who then experiences an intensification of positive affect in response to plot resolution, whether or not this entails a happy ending.� (1991), in line with this model, discerned that distress and delight in response to a horror film correlated in three different samples, the effect being particularly pronounced in males.� However, in many horror films the plot is never resolved and the monster or killer survives to participate in the sequel, and there is no evidence that serial films like Friday the 13th (1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1993) or Halloween (1978, 1981, 1988, 1989, 1995, 1998) are any less popular than horror movies in which the monster or killer is vanquished (Wells, 2000).� McCauley (1998), in conducting two small studies, also uncovered data inconsistent with the excitation transfer hypothesis to the extent that enjoyment of cinematic horror was higher during the movie than at the end of the picture. ����������� Carroll (1990) maintains that instead of eliminating or reducing negative affect, horror films stimulate and excite positive emotions like curiosity and fascination.� The violation of societal norms, a common theme in many horror pictures, may attract the attention of some viewers because it is outside the viewer�s normal everyday experience.� In support of a curiosity/fascination explanation of horror film popularity, Tamborini, Stiff, and Zillmann (1987) observed a correlation of .39 between the deceit subscale of the Machiavellianism scale, a measure of the acceptance of norm violating behavior, and interest in horror cinema.� Alternatively, research connotes that not all viewers identify with norm violating and, in fact, respond favorably when norm violators, like teenagers who engage in drug use, premarital sex, or petty crime, are punished over the course of a movie (Weaver, 1991). ����������� Zuckerman (1979) has proposed a sensation seeking theory of horror film appeal in which high sensation seeking people are said to be attracted to horror pictures because of the increased levels of sensation these movies provide.� Edwards (1984), Sparks (1986) and Johnston (1995) have all recorded robust positive correlations between scores on Zuckerman�s Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and self-reported enjoyment of frightening entertainment and horror movies, although the relationship between SSS scores and interest in horror is not always significant (Tamborini, Stiff, & Zillmann, 1987).� Zuckerman (1996) himself cautions us against �interpreting a preference in terms of a single trait or any disposition at all� because �there are many social facilitating factors that bring young people into these films� (p. 158). ����������� People seem to enjoy the violence in horror movies when it is directed against those they believe are deserving of such treatment (Zillmann & Paulus, 1993).� This observation has given rise to dispositional alignment theory in which it is hypothesized that a person�s emotional reactions to events portrayed in a horror film can be traced back to the dispositional feelings they have for the person involved.� In other words, if it is someone who is seen as deserving of punishment, like a teenage girl currently engaged in sexual activity (Weaver, 1991), then the viewer is likely to adopt a positive view of the violence.� Violence directed against someone not considered deserving of punishment, like an innocent child, is more likely to be interpreted in a negative light.� While the dispositional alignment theory informs us of which episodes of violence in a horror picture will be acceptable to a viewer, it does not fully explain why horror, graphic or otherwise, is so popular with viewers. ����������� In a classic study on gender differences in the social context of horror movie watching, Zillmann, Weaver, Mundorf, and Aust (1986) determined that teenage boys enjoyed a horror film significantly more when the female companion they were sitting next to expressed fright, whereas teenage girls enjoyed the film more when the male companion with whom they were paired showed a sense of mastery and control.� These observations have given rise to the gender role socialization or snuggle theory in which horror films are viewed as a vehicle by which adolescents demonstrate gender role congruent behavior: mastery and fearlessness in boys and dependency and fearfulness in girls (Zillmann & Gibson, 1996).� This theory fails to explain, however, why some people prefer to watch horror movies alone (McCauley, 1998). ����������� Stephen King (1981) states that horror films often serve as a �barometer of those things which trouble the night thoughts of a whole society� (p. 131).� Following up on this observation, Skal (1993) contends that horror films reflect current societal issues and concerns by denoting how the fear of totalitarianism in the 1930s gave birth to movies like Frankenstein (1931), the fear of radiation gave flight to the creature features of the 1950s, the war in Vietnam gave rise to a new breed of zombie movie as represented by 1968's Night of the Living Dead, Watergate inspired mistrust for authority figures and films like Nightmare on Elm Street (1984), and serial killers encouraged an interest in movies like Silence of the Lambs (1991).� As important as societal concerns are in understanding the popularity of horror movies, it should be kept in mind that many of these movies operate on universal or cross-cultural fears. ����������� Johnston (1995) administered a series of personality tests to a group of 220 high school students and determined that their motives for watching slasher films fell into four general categories referred to as gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching.� Gore watching is characterized by low empathy, high sensation seeking, low fearfulness, and in males, a strong identification with the killer.� Whereas gore watching is driven by an interest in violence, thrill watching is motivated by suspense and is associated with high levels of empathy and sensation seeking.� Independent watching, a third pattern identified by, evolves from a spirit of mastery and is characterized by strong identification with the victim and high levels of positive affect.� The fourth pattern, problem watching, also entails identification with the victim, but unlike independent watching, the affect is negative and the mood helpless.� As the study suggests, there is no one reason why people watch horror movies.� Instead, there are several different patterns of motivation and not one of the eight traditional theoretical models of horror film appeal reviewed in this paper seems capable of accounting for all of the patterns.� From the definition of horror adopted in this paper, the eight traditional models of horror film appeal, and the complex process by which people interpret and relate to works of fiction, it is proposed that the allure of horror cinema is a function of three primary factors: tension, relevance, and unrealism. ����������� Horror films create tension through mystery (Rosemary�s Baby, 1968), suspense (The Haunting, 1963), gore (The Evil Dead, 1982), terror (The Shining, 1980), and shock (Suspira, 1977): I recognize terror as the finest emotion, and so I will try to terrorize the reader.� But if I find I cannot terrify him/her, I will try to horrify; and if I find I cannot horrify, I�ll go for the gross-out.� I�m not proud. (Stephen King, 1981, p. 37).
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Sordid Truths: Selling My Innocence for a Taste of Stardom

Aiden Shaw

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Film Eras have also been effected by the growth of the international market as well. From new releases to oldies, discover your next favorite album and artist! Caruso (I Am Number Four) just signed up to direct. Grumpy Old Men is arguably the best entry in this category. You can also contact our support at contact@mymovies.dk with a link to the website or the blog on which the review will be posted, as well as your username, and we will supply you a free full license or a redeem code for Mac OS X, iPhone or iPad.
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Rex Ingram: Master of the Silent Cinema

Liam O'Leary

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But it’s the supporting characters that really bring the movie together: Walter’s conspiracy-theorist junkman, the hairnet-wearing Rosato Brothers, Otto’s mohicanned criminal buddies. In slashers, the victims tend to be young, attractive and often nude. Things are complicated by Jessie's boyfriend Trent. Charlie Kaufman (Nicholas Cage) is an eclectic but shabby screenwriter trying to grow as an artist and a person.
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The Dreamweavers: Interviews With Fantasy Filmmakers of the

William Rabkin, Lee Goldberg

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It’s not as though the world has a shortage of good actors; it’s that staking scares on performances rather than effects always involves an element of risk. Cast: Matthew Reese, Dolph Lundgren, Chuck Liddell. The other has you actually making the movie, by setting up scenes, getting a script, placing actors, and filming the scene. But like Sherlock Holmes’s evil shadow, Dr Lecter makes everyone else look so dull.
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Tracking King Kong: A Hollywood Icon in World Culture

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Based on the vampire hunting character "Van Helsing" from Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, the film brings together several characters from contemporary "horror" literature such as Mr Hyde, The Wolf Man and Frankenstein in an entertaining blend of gothic fantasy. Sakashita believes that if Mayu is treated she may choose to killer herself. The unique thing about comedy films is that it can intertwine with other sub-genres (Anarchic, action, black (dark), horror, dramedy, parody/spoof, rom-com, and slapstick) due to its humorous story.
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